("twins step forward!"). Under the first is written: "So bist du rein" (like this you are clean), and under the second, "So gehst du ein" (like this you come to a bad end); and lower down, in doubtful French but in Gothic script: "La propreté, c'est la santé" [cleanliness is health]. Rut Matthijsen Excerpt: A Holocaust Rescuer Discusses How the Holocaust Might Best Be Taught, The Central Database of Shoah Victims' Names, Breakdown of Jewish population by country, before and after World War II, Detailed breakdown of Holocaust victim statistics, Links to sites listing victims and survivors from specific German communities and concentration camps, Info on archive of 128,000 victim records (currently under construction), Info on archive of 56,000 victim records from Berlin, Online searchable database of 55,000 victim records from Berlin, Links to several online searchable victim databases, Link to searchable online victim database of 2,700 from Stutthof, Link to searchable online victim database from Augsburg, Link to searchable online victim database from Bingen, Lists of people from Gerau region noted by the Nazis for being insufficiently Aryan; Nazi murder victims listed at the bottom, Lists of Jews sent from Hamburg, organized by concentration camp, Lists of victims from Hofgeismar, Kassel and Wolfhagen (Hessen), Hohenschönhausener Victims of the Holocaust, Names of 173 Jewish victims from Kaiserslautern, List of Krefelder Jews who died in institutes, prisons or camps, or suicide during World War II, Death Lists from concentration camps near Muehldorf am Inn, Searchable list of 2300 victims from Nuremberg, List of Jews from Speyer rounded up by Nazis with notation regarding their fate, Documentary Resources on the Nazi Genocide and its Denial, Canadian War Museum World War II Newspaper Archives - The Holocaust. , According to Fleming, the British press responded, in 1943 and the first half of 1944, either by not publishing reports about Auschwitz or by burying them on the inside pages. Conditions in the women's camp were so poor that when a group of male prisoners arrived to set up an infirmary in October 1942, their first task, according to researchers from the Auschwitz museum, was to distinguish the corpses from the women who were still alive. Hiện nay thì cộng đồng người Do Thái ở nước Mỹ chủ yếu là Người Ashkenazi Do …  Both during and immediately after the Nazi seizure of power in Germany in 1933, acts of violence against German Jews became ubiquitous, and legislation was passed excluding them from certain professions, including the civil service and the law. The destruction of the electrified barbed wire, the ensuing panic and darkness prevailing, the chances of escape would be great.  Observant Jews tried to keep track of the Hebrew calendar and Jewish holidays, including Shabbat, and the weekly Torah portion.  When Himmler visited the camp on 17 and 18 July 1942, he was given a demonstration of a selection of Dutch Jews, a mass killing in a gas chamber in bunker 2, and a tour of the building site of Auschwitz III, the new IG Farben plant being constructed at Monowitz. Heinrich Schwarz was commandant of Auschwitz III from the point at which it became an autonomous camp in November 1943 until its liquidation.  Succeeded as commandant by Arthur Liebehenschel, Höss joined the SS Business and Administration Head Office in Oranienburg as director of Amt DI, a post that made him deputy of the camps inspectorate. , Deportees were brought to Auschwitz crammed in wretched conditions into goods or cattle wagons, arriving near a railway station or at one of several dedicated trackside ramps, including one next to Auschwitz I. , Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, head of the Schutzstaffel (SS), approved the site in April 1940 on the recommendation of SS-Obersturmbannführer Rudolf Höss of the camps inspectorate. , When Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, triggering World War II, Hitler ordered that the Polish leadership and intelligentsia be destroyed.  In October 1944, 200 Sonderkommando were executed for their part in the Sonderkommando revolt. The first 30 prisoners arrived on 20 May 1940 from the Sachsenhausen camp in Oranienburg, Germany. Jewish prisoners were at the bottom.  By May 1942 three ovens had been installed in crematorium I, which together could burn 340 bodies in 24 hours. Holocaust table: The partition of the 6 million figure: Holocaust with tunnel systems, bunker constructioning and Stalin deportations etc. Spiritual suffering was completely alien to them. Yes, Auschwitz had an art museum, a library, regular concerts and sporting events, a “theater for music and drama,” a swimming pool (sometimes used for water polo) and a brothel for lonely inmates — all round, as Yeager writes, “a flourishing cultural life.” , After examining several sites for a new plant to manufacture Buna-N, a type of synthetic rubber essential to the war effort, the German chemical cartel IG Farben chose a site near the towns of Dwory and Monowice (Monowitz in German), about 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) east of Auschwitz I. The 700-page indictment, presenting the testimony of 254 witnesses, was accompanied by a 300-page report about the camp, Nationalsozialistische Konzentrationslager, written by historians from the Institut für Zeitgeschichte in Germany, including Martin Broszat and Helmut Krausnick. The victims were usually dead within 10 minutes; Rudolf Höss testified that it took up to 20 minutes. The local population will hide them and help them to leave the neighbourhood.  Items found included 837,000 women's garments, 370,000 men's suits, 44,000 pairs of shoes, and 7,000 kg of human hair, estimated by the Soviet war crimes commission to have come from 140,000 people.  Punishment by "the post" involved tying prisoners hands behind their backs with chains attached to hooks, then raising the chains so the prisoners were left dangling by the wrists. Auschwitz I was the main camp, which held prisoners from 1940-1945.Auschwitz II (Birkenau) was the largest extermination camp (death camp) run by Nazi Germany during The Holocaust. Unit 731 was the creation of a brutal psychopath, Lieutenant-General Ishii Shiro. The evening meal was 300 grams of bread, often moldy, part of which the inmates were expected to keep for breakfast the next day, with a tablespoon of cheese or marmalade, or 25 grams of margarine or sausage. Coronavirus: Latest news and service updates on symptoms of COVID-19, protection against the virus and the worldwide fight to stop the spread of SARS-CoV-2.  The women and girls were placed in odd-numbered barracks and the men and boys in even-numbered. , An estimated 4,500 Polish political prisoners were executed at the death wall, including members of the camp resistance. Polish historian Irena Strzelecka writes that kapos were given nicknames that reflected their sadism: "Bloody", "Iron", "The Strangler", "The Boxer". Auschwitz 6.JPG 3,024 × 2,016; 1.48 MB. [a], Harassment and economic pressure encouraged Jews to leave Germany; their businesses were denied access to markets, forbidden from advertising in newspapers, and deprived of government contracts. Kitty Hart-Moxon, OBE (born 1 December 1926) is a Polish-English Holocaust survivor.She was sent to the Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp in 1943 at age 16, where she survived for two years, and was also imprisoned at other camps. , Sunday was not a work day, but prisoners had to clean the barracks and take their weekly shower, and were allowed to write (in German) to their families, although the SS censored the mail.  Those not gassed died of starvation, exhaustion, disease, individual executions, or beatings. On 19 January 1945, the SS ordered that the site be evacuated, sending 9,000 inmates, most of them Jews, on a death march to another Auschwitz subcamp at Gliwice. A környéken található Zalai-dombság és Keszthelyi-fennsík dombjai, hegyei ölelik körbe a várost. , In the decades since its liberation, Auschwitz has become a primary symbol of the Holocaust. They begin to hide. Auschwitz was a group of concentration camps run by Nazi Germany during World War II.There were three large camps at Auschwitz, and 3 smaller ones. ... And in the meantime, their voices grew weaker and weaker ... Because of the great crowding, people fell one atop another as they died, until a heap arose consisting of five or six layers atop the other, reaching a height of one meter. No watches, calendars, or clocks were permitted in the camp.  According to Aleksander Lasik, female SS officers were treated more harshly than male; of the 17 women sentenced, four received the death penalty and the others longer prison terms than the men. ", http://emperors-clothes.com/croatia/stepinac1.htm.  Peter Longerich estimated that a quarter of the detainees were thus killed. Memorial to those who suffered at the eleven Kaufering concentration camps, located in the general area of Landsberg and Kaufering, Germany. Political prisoners (Schutzhäftlinge or Sch), mostly Poles, had a red triangle, while criminals (Berufsverbrecher or BV) were mostly German and wore green. A gripping documentary, SWIMMING IN AUSCHWITZ sheds light on the Holocaust experience from the rarely explored perspective of six women imprisoned inside the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp.  Wielding tremendous power over other prisoners, the functionaries developed a reputation as sadists.  The 180-day Frankfurt Auschwitz trials, held in West Germany from 20 December 1963 to 20 August 1965, tried 22 defendants, including two dentists, a doctor, two camp adjudants and the camp's pharmacist. Even Auschwitz had limits to its destructive possibilities," he wrote.  A prison orchestra, such as the Women's Orchestra of Auschwitz, was forced to play cheerful music as the workers left the camp. On 27 May 1944, Arnost Rosin (no. However, we were unable to obtain conclusive results because they died during the experiments. About 1,000 Soviet prisoners of war died by execution, although this is a rough estimate. , Certain prisoners, at first non-Jewish Germans but later Jews and non-Jewish Poles, were assigned positions of authority as Funktionshäftlinge (functionaries), which gave them access to better housing and food.  In 2005 the United Nations General Assembly designated 27 January, the date of the camp's liberation, as International Holocaust Remembrance Day.  Primo Levi described seeing the first four soldiers on horseback approach Auschwitz III, where he had been in the sick bay.  Against this, Jean-Claude Pressac estimated that up to 10,000 people had been killed in Auschwitz I. Any bits of bone that had not burned properly were ground down in wooden mortars. David Wisnia, 91, survived the Holocaust because of his talent for singing. [g] The women's guard from Ravensbrück, Johanna Langefeld, became the first Auschwitz women's camp Lagerführerin. Historical photographs, mostly from the archive of Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum as well as saved historical documents from the camp operation period. ", The Polish government-in-exile in London first reported the gassing of prisoners in Auschwitz on 21 July 1942, and reported the gassing of Soviet POWs and Jews on 4 September 1942. , Only 789 Auschwitz staff, up to 15 percent, ever stood trial; most of the cases were pursued in Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany.  Höss told prosecutors at Nuremberg that at least 2,500,000 people had been gassed there, and that another 500,000 had died of starvation and disease. Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia.  Living with his wife and children in a two-story stucco house near the commandant's and administration building, he served as commandant until 11 November 1943, with Josef Kramer as his deputy. It was found in 1952, signed "A.Y.R.A":, It would be difficult to even imagine that so many people would fit in such a small [room]. Prisoners were only tattooed at the camp between autumn 1941 and spring of 1943. They removed glasses and artificial limbs and shaved off the women's hair; women's hair was removed before they entered the gas chamber at Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka, but at Auschwitz it was done after death. On 29 April the first 1,800 Jews from Hungary arrived at the camp. At its peak in January 1945, 4,480 SS men and 71 SS women worked in Auschwitz; the higher number is probably attributable to the logistics of evacuating the camp.  By nation, the greatest number of Auschwitz's Jewish victims originated from Hungary, accounting for 430,000 deaths, followed by Poland (300,000), France (69,000), Netherlands (60,000), Greece (55,000), Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (46,000), Slovakia (27,000), Belgium (25,000), Germany and Austria (23,000), Yugoslavia (10,000), Italy (7,500), Norway (690), and others (34,000).  Incidents of sabotage to decrease production took place in several subcamps, including Charlottengrube, Gleiwitz II, and Rajsko. Stripped of all human dignity, they pushed and shoved and bit and kicked each other in an effort to get a few more inches' space on which to sleep a little more comfortably.  Of the 802 escapes, 144 were successful, 327 were caught, and the fate of 331 is unknown. It was that shame we knew so well, the shame that drowned us after the selections, and every time we had to watch, or submit to, some outrage: the shame the Germans did not know, that the just man experiences at another man's crime; the feeling of guilt that such a crime should exist, that it should have been introduced irrevocably into the world of things that exist, and that his will for good should have proved too weak or null, and should not have availed in defence. "Among the Righteous: Lost Stories from the Holocaust's Long Reach into Arab Lands" (Public Affairs, 2006), Dippler, Christoph "The German Resistance and the Jews" pages 51–93 from. I suppose the filmmaker probably thought of the title as a metaphor, but it's a weak one. 6438), and Józef Lempart (no. Ultimately 87 of the inmates were shipped to Natzweiler-Struthof and killed in August 1943.  The 60th Army of the 1st Ukrainian Front (also part of the Red Army) arrived in Auschwitz I and II around 3 pm. This made the total daily capacity 4,416, although by loading three to five corpses at a time, the Sonderkommando were able to burn some 8,000 bodies a day. A woman has been convicted for performing “grossly offensive” antisemitic songs that included lyrics calling Auschwitz “a theme park”. Người Mỹ gốc Do Thái, hoặc người Do Thái Hoa Kỳ (tiếng Anh: American Jews hay Jewish Americans), là những ai vừa là người Mỹ vừa là người Do Thái dựa theo tôn giáo, dân tộc, và quốc tịch. Young survivors at the camp, liberated by the, End of the rail track inside Auschwitz II, Camps, ghettos, execution sites and attacks, Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators, Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical. 27273, registered as Jerzy Wesołowski) and Roman Cieliczko (no. It consisted of Auschwitz I, the main camp (Stammlager) in Oświęcim; Auschwitz II-Birkenau, a concentration and extermination camp built with several gas chambers; Auschwitz III-Monowitz, a labor camp created to staff a factory for the chemical conglomerate IG Farben; and dozens of subcamps. References. Carl Clauberg injected chemicals into women's uteruses in an effort to glue them shut. Auschwitz III, also called Buna or Monowitz, was established in October 1942. In his testimony, according to Polish historian, German Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camp (1940–1945), the Mannerist Architectural and Park Landscape Complex and Pilgrimage Park, Jews escaping from German-occupied Europe, Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor, First mass transport to Auschwitz concentration camp, SS command of Auschwitz concentration camp, Responsibility for the Holocaust § Allied knowledge of the atrocities, The Holocaust § Flow of information about the mass murder, The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied Poland, The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust 1941–1945, Liberation of Auschwitz concentration camp, Act on the Institute of National Remembrance, List of victims and survivors of Auschwitz, Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, "Auschwitz I, Auschwitz II-Birkenau, Auschwitz III-Monowitz", "Anniversary of the First Transport of Polish Jews to Auschwitz", "Tattoos and Numbers: The System of Identifying Prisoners at Auschwitz", "Persecution of Homosexuals in the Third Reich", "An Original German Train Car at the Birkenau Ramp", "Romani children in an orphanage in Germany", "Jewish women and children who have been selected for death, walk in a line towards the gas chambers", The International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg 1946, "Ethnic origins and number of victims of Auschwitz", "'From the Heart of Hell'. Więżniów Oświęcimia ("Prisoners of Oświęcim"), Obozowa ("Camp"), Ostatni Etap ("Last Stage"), Spóldzielców ("Of the co-workers"), Ofiar Faszyzmu ("Victims of Fascism"), Piwniczna ("Cellar", "Basement"), and personal names. , On 24 December 1941, the resistance groups representing the various prisoner factions met in block 45 and agreed to cooperate.  The gas chambers worked to their fullest capacity from May to July 1944, during the Holocaust in Hungary.  Brandt and Sievers were executed in 1948 after being convicted during the Doctors' trial, part of the Subsequent Nuremberg trials. Swimming in Auschwitz is a 2007 documentary which interweaves the stories of six Jewish women who were imprisoned inside the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp during the Holocaust.  There were around 28 camps near industrial plants, each camp holding hundreds or thousands of prisoners. Construction of Auschwitz II began the following month, and from 1942 until late 1944 freight trains delivered Jews from all over German-occupied Europe to its gas chambers.  The SS viewed Auschwitz as a comfortable posting; being there meant they had avoided the front and had access to the victims' property. , Pierse replied that it was not technically feasible to bomb the camp without harming the prisoners. From late July they were taken to the factory by train on freight wagons.  The morgue was later converted to a gas chamber able to hold at least 700–800 people. Pilecki compiled two reports after he escaped in April 1943; the second, Raport W, detailed his life in Auschwitz I and estimated that 1.5 million people, mostly Jews, had been killed. For they did not have long to sleep. Written by Jon Kean Plot Summary | Add Synopsis  The following month, about 2,000 women from the family camp were selected to be moved to other camps and 80 boys were moved to the men's camp; the remaining 7,000 were gassed between 10 and 12 July.  In his memoirs, written in custody, Höss wrote that Eichmann had given the figure of 2.5 million to Höss's superior officer Richard Glücks, based on records that had been destroyed.  Work on a new railway line and ramp (right) between sectors BI and BII in Auschwitz II, was completed in May 1944 for the arrival of Hungarian Jews between May and early July 1944.  The Czechoslovak government-in-exile initiated diplomatic manoeuvers to save the remaining Czech Jews after its representative in Bern received the Vrba-Wetzler report, written by two escaped prisoners, Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler, which warned that the remaining family-camp inmates would be gassed soon. A second roll call took place at seven in the evening, in the course of which prisoners might be hanged or flogged. Memorial Photographs showing a contemporary image of the sites of the former Auschwitz-Birkenau camp (i.e. Boris Polevoi reported on the liberation in Pravda on 2 February 1945 but made no mention of Jews; inmates were described collectively as "victims of Fascism". ", Earlier estimates of the death toll were higher than Piper's.  IG Farben paid the SS three or four Reichsmark for nine- to eleven-hour shifts from each worker. Anyone who did not want to go inside was shot [...] or torn apart by the dogs.  To extract information from inmates, guards would force their heads onto the stove, and hold them there, burning their faces and eyes.  On 18 January 1945, Engelbert Marketsch, a German criminal transferred from Mauthausen, became the last prisoner to be assigned a serial number in Auschwitz, number 202499.  Known as KL Auschwitz III-Aussenlager (Auschwitz III subcamp), and later as the Monowitz concentration camp, it was the first concentration camp to be financed and built by private industry. Discover the story of Auschwitz on a full-day trip to the Auschwitz-Birkenau complex in Oświęcim from Krakow. He was imprisoned in Heide, then transferred to Minden for interrogation, part of the British occupation zone. Auschwitz II-Birkenau, the permanent exhibition in the central camp sauna building There is a system of informational and commemorative signs at the Birkenau site.  The first executions, by shooting inmates in the back of the head, took place at the death wall on 11 November 1941, Poland's National Independence Day. The SS destroyed the remaining gassing installations as Soviet forces approached in January 1945.  "Selection", where new arrivals were chosen for work or the gas chamber, began in April 1942 and was conducted regularly from July.  The cross remained, triggering the "War of the Crosses", as more crosses were erected to commemorate Christian victims, despite international objections.  He and other doctors (the latter prisoners) would measure the twins' body parts, photograph them, and subject them to dental, sight and hearing tests, x-rays, blood tests, surgery, and blood transfusions between them. , On 25 November 1947, the Auschwitz trial began in Kraków, when Poland's Supreme National Tribunal brought to court 40 former Auschwitz staff, including commandant Arthur Liebehenschel, women's camp leader Maria Mandel, and camp leader Hans Aumeier. , On 8 March 1944, 3,791 of the prisoners (men, women and children) were sent to the gas chambers; the men were taken to crematorium III and the women later to crematorium II. So, Auschwitz should redirect to the article about the city (in which the camps are mentioned) or to a disambiguation page, linking both the article about the camp and the article about the city.--AchtungAchtung 13:16, 1 September 2006 (UTC)  At the Wannsee Conference in Berlin on 20 January 1942, Reinhard Heydrich outlined the Final Solution to the Jewish Question to senior Nazis, and from early 1942 freight trains delivered Jews from all over occupied Europe to German extermination camps in Poland: Auschwitz, Bełżec, Chełmno, Majdanek, Sobibór, and Treblinka. Prisoners were infected with spotted fever for vaccination research and exposed to toxic substances to study the effects. The concentration camp Auschwitz (detail of diorama in glass showcase). , Langefeld was succeeded as Lagerführerin in October 1942 by SS Oberaufseherin Maria Mandl, who developed a reputation for cruelty. In sectors BIa and BIb in Auschwitz II, two buildings containing latrines and washrooms were installed in 1943. Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Overview. The Altejudenrampe (old Jewish ramp), part of the Oświęcim freight railway station, was used from 1942 to 1944 for Jewish transports. The inmates were counted and re-counted.  Designated as Aussenlager (external camp), Nebenlager (extension camp), Arbeitslager (labor camp), or Aussenkommando (external work detail), camps were built at Blechhammer, Jawiszowice, Jaworzno, Lagisze, Mysłowice, Trzebinia, and as far afield as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in Czechoslovakia. Ten thousand remain unaccounted for. Many years later, she used her diaries and memories to tell the story of the horror that followed. An infirmary was set up in barracks 30 and 32, and barracks 31 became a school and kindergarten.  Himmler ordered the evacuation of all camps in January 1945, telling camp commanders: "The Führer holds you personally responsible for ... making sure that not a single prisoner from the concentration camps falls alive into the hands of the enemy.  Gisella Perl, a Romanian-Jewish gynecologist and inmate of the women's camp, wrote in 1948: There was one latrine for thirty to thirty-two thousand women and we were permitted to use it only at certain hours of the day.  Two Auschwitz victims—Maximilian Kolbe, a priest who volunteered to die by starvation in place of a stranger, and Edith Stein, a Jewish convert to Catholicism—were named saints of the Catholic Church. , The resistance sent out the first oral message about Auschwitz with Dr. Aleksander Wielkopolski, a Polish engineer who was released in October 1940.  When they liberated the camp in January 1945, the Red Army found 7,000 kg of human hair in bags ready to ship. , Just before cremation, jewelry was removed, along with dental work and teeth containing precious metals. Swimming In Auschwitz.  According to SS officer Perry Broad, "[s]ome of these walking skeletons had spent months in the stinking cells, where not even animals would be kept, and they could barely manage to stand straight.  Adding non-Jewish victims gives a figure of 900,000 who were killed without being registered. For unknown reasons, they were not subject to selection and families were allowed to stay together. Jews on selection ramp at Auschwitz, May 1944, Selected semi-autobiographical by survivors, Particular groups involved in The Holocaust, The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied Poland, Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations, Auschwitz 1940–1945: Central Issues in the History of the Camp, The Twisted Road to Auschwitz: Nazi Policy Toward German Jews, 1933-1939, Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin, The Holocaust in popular culture § Literature, Still Alive: A Holocaust Girlhood Remembered, This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil, Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust, Auschwitz: The Nazis and the 'Final Solution', Daring to Resist: Three Women Face the Holocaust, Into the Arms of Strangers: Stories of the Kindertransport, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933-1945, volume 1, Holocaust Survivors and Remembrance Project: "Forget You Not", Yad Vashem- Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, The Ghetto Fighters' House (museum and study center in Israel), The Holocaust, Crimes, Heroes And Villains, The Holocaust "children's voices from beyond", Shoah Education Project Web- Introduction to the Holocaust, World Holocaust Forum "Let My People Live! The prisoners are confidently awaiting the day when Polish planes from Great Britain will enable their escape. Dwork and van Pelt write that, in addition, Auschwitz I played a more central role in the persecution of the Polish people, in opposition to the importance of Auschwitz II to the Jews, including Polish Jews.  During the marches, the SS shot or otherwise dispatched anyone unable to continue; "execution details" followed the marchers, killing prisoners who lagged behind.  Other SS staff worked in the medical or political departments, or in the economic administration, which was responsible for clothing and other supplies, including the property of dead prisoners. Jewish women and children from Hungary walking toward the gas chamber, Auschwitz II, May/June 1944. On 2 July 1947, the Polish government passed a law establishing a state memorial to remember "the martyrdom of the Polish nation and other nations in Oswiecim". , German doctors performed a variety of experiments on prisoners at Auschwitz.  After the doors were shut, SS men dumped in the Zyklon B pellets through vents in the roof or holes in the side of the chamber. Purple was for Jehovah's Witnesses (Internationale Bibelforscher-Vereinigung or IBV)'s and pink for gay men, who were mostly German. Guards were also recruited from Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. The sign was later recovered. , The SS deported around 18,000 Jews to Auschwitz from the Theresienstadt ghetto in Terezin, Czechoslovakia, beginning on 8 September 1943 with a transport of 2,293 male and 2,713 female prisoners. All three pilots were descendants of Holocaust survivors, including the man who led the flight, Major-General Amir Eshel. Others complained in voices full of despair, and others still sobbed spasmodically and sent up a dire, heart-rending weeping. Sterilization experiments were carried out in barracks 30 by a German gynecologist, Carl Clauberg, and another German doctor, Horst Schumann. The report said of the Jews in the camp that "scarcely any of them came out alive". , Women were at first held in blocks 1–10 of Auschwitz I, but from 6 August 1942, 13,000 inmates were transferred to a new women's camp (Frauenkonzentrationslager or FKL) in Auschwitz II. After escaping through a fence using wirecutters, they managed to reach Rajsko, where they hid in the granary of an Auschwitz satellite camp, but the SS pursued and killed them by setting the granary on fire.