Gandhi was cremated on 3 November near Raj Ghat. [133] In 2011, the Government of Bangladesh conferred its highest state award posthumously on Gandhi for her "outstanding contribution" to the country's independence. Twenty six political organizations were banned and over 100,000 Indian citizens were arrested. The Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme started by Central Government (Ministry of Rural Development) for Disable persons of the country. ", "March to socialism under Prime Minister Indira Gandhi offers an interesting parallel", "1969: S. Nijalingappa expelled Indira Gandhi from the party", "Indira Gandhi—the iron-willed stateswoman", "General Elections, India, 1971: Statistical report", "Did Atal bihari Vajpayee call Indira Gandhi 'Durga' ? [162], The measures of the emergency regime was able to halt the economic trouble of the early to mid-1970s, which had been marred by harvest failures, fiscal contraction, and the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchanged rates. Applicants may apply again when IGIDR advertises after it resumes in-campus activities fully. [10][11] Her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, was a leading figure in the movement for independence from British rule, and became the first Prime Minister of the Dominion (and later Republic) of India. [136] India under Gandhi was alleged to have supported the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) militants in the 1980s to put pressure on Jayewardene to abide by Indian interests. Golden Temple massacre Assassinated. The most prominent of the Kashmiri separatists, Sheikh Abdullah, had to recognise India's control over Kashmir in light of the new order in South Asia. Print. [151], Foreign and domestic policy successes in the 1970s enabled Gandhi to rebuild India's image in the eyes of African states. [190] In 1969, Gandhi moved to nationalise fourteen major commercial banks. Case Study: Smt. The resulting turbulence in the foreign exchange markets was accentuated further by the oil shock of 1973. The Indira Gandhi Memorial Trust     | [226] Unsurprisingly, a lot of her involvement stemmed from her father. [192] Jayaprakash Narayan, who became famous for leading the opposition to Gandhi in the 1970s, solidly praised her nationalisation of banks. Indira Gandhi University B. Pharm Lateral Entry Fees structure IGU Offers B. Pharm Lateral Entry Course for three years of Duration with the intake of 5 students for the 2nd academic year. The Kashmir conflict remained largely peaceful if frozen under Gandhi's premiership. Indira's son, Sanjay selected his own loyalists to head the governments in these states. [217], She married Feroze Gandhi at the age of 25, in 1942. Gandhi's Congress party was soundly crushed in the elections. [185] Gandhi declared inflation the gravest of problems in 1974 (at 25.2%) and devised a severe anti-inflation program. [150] These developments permanently halted India's decline in Africa and helped to reestablish its geo-strategic presence. Elected as a Prime Minister of India. [247], The Congress party was a "broad church" during the independence movement; however, it started turning into a family firm controlled by Indira Gandhi's family during the emergency. Gandhi porzuciła program liberalizacji oraz rozbudowała sektor publiczny. sitemap | [86] In 1980, as a tribute to her son's dream of launching an indigenously manufactured car, Gandhi nationalized Sanjay's debt ridden company, Maruti Udyog, for Rs. Applicants may apply again when IGIDR advertises after it resumes in-campus activities fully. This was unacceptable to many non-Hindi speaking states, which wanted the continued use of English in government. Congress party veteran K. Kamaraj was instrumental in Gandhi achieving victory. She received her primary education at Allahabad only. [45], During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, foreign-owned private oil companies had refused to supply fuel to the Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force. The Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, established in memory of Smt. As early as 1969, critics had begun accusing her of insincerity and machiavellianism. [199], Gandhi questioned the continued existence of a privy purse for former rulers of princely states. [134], Gandhi's approach to dealing with Sri Lanka's ethnic problems was initially accommodating. However, they received a final setback when many of them were defeated by huge margins. [4] She was elected President of the Indian National Congress in 1959. [128], The principle of equal pay for equal work for both men and women was enshrined in the Indian Constitution under the Gandhi administration. The nationalisation drive not only helped to increase household savings, but it also provided considerable investments in the informal sector, in small- and medium-sized enterprises, and in agriculture, and contributed significantly to regional development and to the expansion of India's industrial and agricultural base. [146] Gandhi was unhappy with the lack of support from India's Arab allies during the war with Pakistan, while the Shah was apprehensive at the growing friendship between Pakistan and Arab states of the Persian Gulf, especially Saudi Arabia, and the growing influence of Islam in Pakistani society. [41] The economy managed to recover in 1966 and ended up growing at 4.1% over 1966–1969. [119] Yet despite this, many women saw Gandhi as a symbol for feminism and an image of women's power. It also led to the deaths of many Sikh fighters and innocent pilgrims. Indira Nehru Gandhi vs. Shri Raj Narain and Anr. She did not appoint any women to full cabinet rank during her terms in office. Regular Program offered in the Colleges of Education affiliated to Indira Gandhi University, Meerpur, Rewari for the academic session 2020-21 The Indian government also started considering the possibility of bringing Indians settled in Africa within the framework of its policy goals to help recover its declining geo-strategic influence. [165] By the end of the 1960s, the reversal of the liberalisation process was complete, and India's policies were characterised as "protectionist as ever. Gandhi presided over three Five-Year Plans as prime minister, two of which succeeded in meeting their targeted growth. Gandhi saw this test as Chinese nuclear intimidation and promoted Nehru's views to establish India's stability and security interests independent from those of the nuclear superpowers. Indira Gandhi: Early Life and Family . The Congress Party won a reduced majority in the Lok Sabha after these elections owing to widespread disenchantment over the rising prices of commodities, unemployment, economic stagnation and a food crisis. In 1999, Indira Gandhi was named "Woman of the Millennium" in an online poll organised by the BBC. Indira Gandhi, Letters to an American Friend. In 1969, she fell out with senior Congress party leaders over several issues. Furthermore, there was a great resentment against class banking in India, which had left the poor (the majority of the population) unbanked. [57][59] The judge, however, rejected the more serious charges of bribery, laid against her in the case.[57]. virtual meeting of first performance review committee prc on 24th to 28th august reg.. pfms system has in built mechanism for transparent and real-time monitoring of fund flow for various schemes of the central government, right from the central release to expenditure by the states/ut's [101] There was fierce criticism of the action by Sikhs in India and overseas. [181][185], Gandhi inherited a tattered economy in her second term; harvest failures and a second oil shock in the late 1970s had caused inflation to rise again. Gandhi survived party in-fighting, emerging as a popular leader thanks in part to efforts to revitalize the farming industry. [195] By doing this she had hoped to ward off the growing political conflict between Hindu and Sikh groups in the region. [186], The unemployment rate remained constant at 9% over a nine-year period (1971–80) before declining to 8.3% in 1983. [195] However, a contentious issue that was considered unresolved by the Akalis was the status of Chandigarh, a prosperous city on the Punjab-Haryana border, which Gandhi declared a union territory to be shared as a capital by both the states. [150] Indian condemnation of militant struggles in Kenya and Algeria was in sharp contrast to China, who had supported armed struggle to win African independence. The prevailing rumour was that he intended to dislodge Gandhi, and the trio stood to prevent that. Indira Gandhi: An Intimate Biography. She was declared dead at 2:20 PM. [180], Gandhi inherited a weak economy when she became prime minister again in 1980. In 1999, Gandhi was named "Woman of the Millennium" in an online poll organised by the BBC. [148], On 26 September 1981, Gandhi was conferred with the honorary degree of Doctor at the Laucala Graduation at the University of the South Pacific in Fiji. On 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi's bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh fired a total of 31 bullets on Indira Gandhi from their service weapons as a revenge of the Golden Temple assault at her residence - 1, Safdarjung Road in New Delhi and she succumbed to her injuries. [87], By the time of Sanjay's death, Gandhi trusted only family members, and therefore persuaded her reluctant son, Rajiv, to enter politics. [146] There was an increase in Indian economic and military co-operation with Iran during the 1970s. [45] Sunanda K. Datta-Ray described her as "a master of rhetoric ... often more posture than policy", while The Times journalist, Peter Hazelhurst, famously quipped that Gandhi's socialism was "slightly left of self-interest. The number of casualties remains disputed with estimates ranging from many hundreds to many thousands. Before the war, Gandhi signed a treaty of friendship with the Soviets. Gandhi not only abandoned the short-lived liberalisation programme but also aggressively expanded the public sector with new licensing requirements and other restrictions for industry. Before the 1980 elections Gandhi approached the then Shahi Imam of Jama Masjid, Syed Abdullah Bukhari and entered into an agreement with him on the basis of 10-point programme to secure the support of the Muslim votes. Before her election as prime minister, she became active in the organisational wing of the Congress party, working in part in the Women's Department. The Indira Gandhi National Open University, the largest university in the world, is also named after her. Call for Applications. Her Cabinet and government then recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declare a state of emergency because of the disorder and lawlessness following the Allahabad High Court decision. Indian diplomats hoped to win Arab support in countering Pakistan in Kashmir. Every drop of my blood ... will contribute to the growth of this nation and to make it strong and dynamic. Web. [222] Her egalitarian upbringing with her cousins helped contribute to her sense of natural equality. The Gandhi faction, called Congress (R), lost its majority in the parliament but remained in power with the support of regional parties such as DMK. [81][82] The conditions included dropping all charges against Gandhi and Sanjay. Today, Mizoram is considered one of the most peaceful states in the north-east. [200] In 1971, Gandhi again motioned to abolish the privy purse. After the bitter experience with Johnson, Gandhi decided not to request food aid in the future. [23] There it was decided that Indira would continue her education at the University of Oxford. She was to be interviewed by the British filmmaker Peter Ustinov, who was filming a documentary for Irish television. Indira Gandhi decided to send the Indian Army on a frontal assault of the building to capture or kill Bhindranwale. Indian Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Year : 2009, Volume : 7, Issue : 4. Under this scheme, the beneficiary is given monthly financial help for better and easier life. [239][240][241], In 2011, the Bangladesh Freedom Honour (Bangladesh Swadhinata Sammanona), Bangladesh's highest civilian award, was posthumously conferred on Gandhi for her "outstanding contributions" to Bangladesh's Liberation War. [citation needed], Gandhi spent a number of years in Europe during her youth and had formed many friendships there. Indira Gandhi’s Political career started quite early in her life serving her father on officially as his personal assistant when he was the first Prime Minister of India in the 1950’s. Athletics & apartheid. She argued the case for abolition based on equal rights for all citizens and the need to reduce the government's revenue deficit. [191] Nationalisation also resulted in significant growth in the geographic coverage of banks; the number of bank branches rose from 8,200 to over 62,000, most of which were opened in unbanked, rural areas. Gandhi accused General Zia of supporting Khalistani militants in Punjab. [215] Despite India being officially part of the Non-Aligned Movement, she gave Indian foreign policy a tilt towards the Soviet bloc. The Domestic policy of the Indira Gandhi government was the domestic policy of India from 1966 to 1984 during the premiership of Indira Gandhi until her assassination in 1984. Terms & Conditions | San Diego: Jayakar, Pupul. IGIDR. However, Gandhi rejected calls to resign. Children's Book Trust, page 95. Finally, the impending legislative assembly elections were postponed indefinitely, with all opposition-controlled state governments being removed by virtue of the constitutional provision allowing for a dismissal of a state government on the recommendation of the state's governor.[63]. "Indira Gandhi had since long been planning for an attack on Darbar Sahib..." Harjinder Singh Dilgeer (2012). [181] The preceding year—1979–80—under the Janata Party government saw the strongest recession (−5.2%) in the history of modern India with inflation rampant at 18.2%. [16] She had limited contact with her father, mostly through letters. [193] After nationalisation, the oil majors such as the Indian Oil Corporation (IOC), the Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) and the Bharat Petroleum Corporation (BPCL) had to keep a minimum stock level of oil, to be supplied to the military when needed. The army used heavy artillery, including tanks, in the action code-named Operation Blue Star. [198][207] The defeat of Pakistan in 1971 and the secession of East Pakistan as pro-India Bangladesh led to the collapse of the Mizo separatist movement. After news of the verdict spread, hundreds of supporters demonstrated outside her house, pledging their loyalty. Following the 1967 elections, Gandhi gradually began to move towards socialist policies. [145] Libya agreed with the Arab monarchies in believing that Gandhi's intervention in East Pakistan was an attack against Islam. India's entry into the nuclear weapons club in 1974 also contributed to tensions in Southeast Asia. The rebellion was suppressed with the Indian Air Force carrying out airstrikes in Aizawl; this remains the only instance of India carrying out an airstrike in its own territory. [68][69][70], In 1977, after extending the state of emergency twice, Gandhi called elections to give the electorate a chance to vindicate her rule. [170] Gandhi personally had a fuzzy concept of socialism. Indira tried to return to England through Portugal but was left stranded for nearly two months. ", "BBC On This Day | 12 | 1975: Gandhi found guilty of corruption", "A Page From The Past: All You Need To Know About Emergency Imposed By Indira Gandhi Government", "Cong blames Sanjay Gandhi for Emergency 'excesses, "Emergency 'propagandist' who banned Kishore Kumar songs", "How Fernandes ran a high-voltage campaign for Chikkamagaluru bypoll", "Tale of two hijackers: One is Congress candidate, other most wanted", "1980: Gandhi returned by landslide vote", "Indira Gandhi becomes Indian prime minister – Jan 19, 1966 – History.com", "Last speech of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi prior to her assassination", "Remembering Indira Gandhi on her 29th death anniversary", "India Hangs Two Sikhs Convicted In Assassination of Indira Gandhi", "32 years of Indira Gandhi assassination, anti-Sikh riots: All you need to know", "Indira Gandhi's assassination sparks a fearful round of sectarian violence", "Indira Gandhi assassination trial: Satwant Singh and Kehar Singh hanged", Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues With Sikh Militants, We the eyeballs : Cover Story – India Today, "HS Phoolka releases video of Rajiv Gandhi's speech justifying 1984 riots", "Watch: The shocking video where Rajiv Gandhi justified 1984 anti-Sikh riots \website=dnaindia.com", Nixon's dislike of 'witch' Indira, BBC News, 29 June 2005, "BBC NEWS | South Asia | Nixon's dislike of 'witch' Indira", Former PM Indira Gandhi honoured with Bangladesh's highest award, The Economic Times, 25 July 2011, "Indira – terror personified or goddess? The Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojna is the scheme launched by central government (ministry of women and child development) in 2010. [141] India was victorious in the resulting Siachen conflict against Pakistan. [143], India's pro-Arab policy had mixed success. [162], There is considerable debate whether Gandhi was a socialist on principle or out of political expediency. At the beginning of her first term as prime minister, she was widely criticised by the media and the opposition as a "Goongi goodiya" (Hindi for a "dumb doll" or "puppet") of the Congress party bosses who had orchestrated her election and then tried to constrain her. It started as a National Open University for imparting a higher level of education to all who are eager to study but are unable to do so for some cause. [51][52][53][54][note 1] In the elections held for State assemblies across India in March 1972, the Congress (R) swept to power in most states riding on the post-war "Indira wave". [144] However, the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 presented a dilemma for the Arab and Muslim states of the Middle East as the war was fought by two states both friendly to the Arabs. Meanwhile, a small group of Sikhs, including some of Bhindranwale's followers, turned to militancy after being targeted by government officials and police for supporting the Anandpur Resolution. [129], India maintained close ties with neighbouring Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) following the Liberation War. [152] Unlike Nehru, she openly and enthusiastically supported liberation struggles in Africa. [209] Finally, a massive crackdown on the insurgents took place during the state of emergency ordered by Gandhi. Gen. A.K.Vaidya Marg Goregaon East, Mumbai - 400 065 (INDIA) Tel: (022) 2840 0919/20/21,28416200 (Board Number) Fax: (022) 2840 2752/28416399 1944) and Sanjay (b. [95] In 1982, Bhindranwale and approximately 200 armed followers moved into a guest house called the Guru Nanak Niwas near the Golden Temple. She went to war with Pakistan in support of the independence movement and war of independence in East Pakistan, which resulted in an Indian victory and the creation of Bangladesh, as well as increasing India's influence to the point where it became the sole regional power of South Asia. Indira Priyadarshini. Accordingly, Ahmed declared a State of Emergency caused by internal disorder, based on the provisions of Article 352(1) of the Constitution, on 25 June 1975. PW 5) Raina Anupuma, Lalwani Sanjeev, Dogra TD, Dept. Several books on Gandhi mention her interest in Joan of Arc. "[223][224], Gandhi did not often discuss her gender, but she did involve herself in women's issues before becoming the prime minister. Indira Gandhi Scholarship 2021: Applications are open for Applicants interested in the Indira Gandhi Scholarship for Single Girl Child funded by Union Government of India. [162], During Lal Bahadur Shastri's last full year in office (1965), inflation averaged 7.7%, compared to 5.2% at the end of Gandhi's first term in office (1977). Citing separatist tendencies, and in response to a call for revolution, Gandhi instituted a state of emergency from 1975 to 1977 where basic civil liberties were suspended and the press was censored. She said: "There is a lot of talk about our government not being clean, but from our experience the situation was very much worse when [opposition] parties were forming governments. [130][131] The Assassination of Mujibur Rahman in 1975 led to the establishment of Islamist military regimes that sought to distance the country from India. [132] Generally, however, there was a rapprochement between Gandhi and the Bangladeshi regimes, although issues such as border disputes and the Farakka Dam remained an irritant to bilateral ties. Elected Congress president. But, much of that growth … India conducted its first “peaceful nuclear experiment” as she described it on May 18, 1974, building up the country’s capability without anyone finding out. Since Gandhi had lost her seat in the election, the defeated Congress party appointed Yashwantrao Chavan as their parliamentary party leader. [148] Relations only began to improve following Gandhi's endorsement of the ZOPFAN declaration and the disintegration of the SEATO alliance in the aftermath of Pakistani and American defeats in the region. The Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), established by an Act of Parliament in 1985, has continuously striven to build an inclusive knowledge society through inclusive education. Her father was Jawaharlal Nehru, independent India’s first prime minister (1947-64), and Indira spent her life amid Indian politics. This would allow her to bypass the dominant rural castes both in and of state and local governments as well as the urban commercial class. [94] In July 1982, he led the campaign for the implementation of the Anandpur Resolution, which demanded greater autonomy for the Sikh-majority state. [161], Gandhi presided over three Five-Year Plans as prime minister, two of which succeeded in meeting their targeted growth. [200] Gandhi responded by having a Presidential proclamation issued; de-recognising the princes; with this withdrawal of recognition, their claims to privy purses were also legally lost. "[176], To deal with India's food problems, Gandhi expanded the emphasis on production of inputs to agriculture that had already been initiated by her father, Jawaharlal Nehru. [214], The programme became fully mature in 1974, when Dr. Raja Ramanna reported to Gandhi that India had the ability to test its first nuclear weapon. In 1967, Gandhi introduced a constitutional amendment that guaranteed the de facto use of both Hindi and English as official languages. Vaidya Marg, Goregaon (East) 400065 Mumbai India Programs at Indira Gandhi - EMLE Program Gandhi had a personal motive in pursuing agricultural self-sufficiency, having found India's dependency on the U.S. for shipments of grains humiliating. [28], During her time in Europe, Indira was plagued with ill-health and was constantly attended to by doctors. For their part, the previously voiceless poor would at last gain both political worth and political weight. Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium Delhi. Indira Gandhi was one of the world’s first leaders to embrace policies to protect the environment, long before it became a survival imperative. New York: Malhotra, Inder. "[138][139], India's relationship with Pakistan remained strained following the Shimla Accord in 1972. "[165][178] The rationale behind the overall plan was Gandhi's Ten-Point Programme of 1967. [41], For the first time, the party also lost power or lost its majority in a number of states across the country. [249], One of her legacies is supposed to be the systematic corruption of all parts of India's government from the executive to the judiciary due to her sense of insecurity. [145], The 1971 war became a temporary stumbling block in growing Indo-Iranian ties. India maintained cordial relations with most of the members during Gandhi's time in power. [166] The government was also successful in procuring houses for landless labourers; According to Francine Frankel, three-fourths of the targeted four million houses was achieved in 1975 alone. [115] After her death, the Parade Ground was converted to the Indira Gandhi Park which was inaugurated by her son, Rajiv Gandhi. [125] India's new hegemonic position, as articulated under the "Indira Doctrine", led to attempts to bring the Himalayan states under India's sphere of influence. Widespread atrocities were carried out during the emergency. Boston: Shankar, A. Indira Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917, in Allahabad, India. [182], Although Gandhi continued professing socialist beliefs, the Sixth Five-Year Plan was markedly different from the years of Garibi Hatao. ", "Indira Gandhi, Amrit Kaur named by TIME among '100 Women of the Year, "Exhibit celebrates 120 years of South Asians at Oxford", "Sonia assures help for father-in-law's grave", "The End of India's Nehru-Gandhi Dynasty? Ustinov, who was filming a documentary for Irish television to appeal to the Math... Hundreds of supporters demonstrated outside her house, pledging their loyalty the number of years in Europe, Gandhi. Would at last gain both political worth and political weight vision, iron will and the strictest discipline '' remove... 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