Ancient Greek comedy was a popular and influential form of theatre performed across ancient Greece from the 6th century BCE. <> *** stock characters - superficial roles. These qualities are an essential part of the hero s make-up. There was a competition between the three tragic playwrights in the festival of Dionysus. It has an introduction (exposition), conflict, climax, and a resolution (denouement). The actor plays a role that animates the character's: *** traits *** moral qualities *** physical presence *** voice Qualities of a personality may be either physical and superficial (external) or psychological and spiritual (internal). The characters should have a goal to reach, but to reach that goal they must go through a series of conflicts. What Are the Three Unities in Greek Theater? Oedipus is at first relieved to find out that the prophesy that he would kill his own father was wrong. The ancient Greeks performed both tragedies and comedies. A final element essential to theater is the text that is performed, and it must be present for theater to occur. (Comedies can have reversals too, but in comedy, the change is almost always for the better). The three genres of drama were comedy, satyr plays, and most important of all, tragedy. endobj *** foil - the character that acts as the butt of the jokes. Here are it’s 5 most prominent characteristics of Elizabethan Drama: ---- *** dramatic irony - the contrast between what the character thinks the truth is and what the audience knows the truth to be. Hubris – excessive pride and disrespect for the natural order of things. Ancient tragedy - invented by the ancient Greeks to show the actions of a tragic hero or heroine. Composed of similarly costumed men, they performed on the dancing floor (), located beneath or in front of the stage.They enter during the first choral song from two entrance ramps (parodoi) on either side of the orchestra, and remain for the entire performance, observing and commenting on the action. ** as opposed to ancient Greek tragedy, a change in fortune is almost always for the better. endobj Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. Their song is usually about the action of the play and helps to build emotion in the audience. It involves the characters and events of the story being brought to life on a stage by actors and their interactions (verbal and non-verbal) through its events. For example, if the speaker were to put a curse on the murderer without realizing that he himself is the murderer, then he would have unwittingly cursed himself. There are two basic types of drama: * Tragedy - a serious, solemn play based on an important social, personal, or religious issue. Choruses would heighten the emotions of the play, comment on the actors' actions and praise Greek gods. miracle plays. Aeschylus - his are the oldest surviving plays - began competing 449 B.C. The most famous playwrights of the genre were Aristophanes and Menander and their works and those of their contemporaries poked fun at politicians, philosophers, and fellow artists. Learning from the mistakes of others was an important part of Greek tragedy. A brief description of each character should be included in the drama. (Ex: Oedipus Rex.) x��}I�%���P�e�&*k>��������"~��. Tragedies used catharsis, were poetic, had a tragic hero and they were considered a complete social action. Example: ***# In Othello,Desdemona's nurse acts as her confidant. The Three Greek Tragedians: 1. When the chorus speaks outside of these interludes, directly with the characters, their lines are said by only one member of the chorus, their leader (Miller 38). True False. <> What is a sample Christmas party welcome address? Reversal may happen after a discovery (anagnorisis,)or a recognition of something previously not known to the hero/heroine. Also a character used to show contrast with the main character. at Dionysus Theatre. 3 0 obj The tragedies of Aeschylus, Euripides and Sophocles followed strict structure and form, which was designed to effectively communicate not only the story of the play, but also the underlying moral to the audience. Remember you must imagine the "sounds," actions and scenery when you are reading a script. 2 0 obj * * Aspects of Greek Comedy: ** required action and conflict that led to a happy ending. ***# In the fairy tale and movie, Cinderella, Cinderella is the protagonist and her wicked step mother is the antagonist. Photo by Andrew Mirhej Although the historical origins of Greek drama are unclear it may be said it had relevance to religion, art and to the love of expression and perceptive storytelling in general. *** costumes are used to portray age, class, profession or ethnic culture. 5. While ideas have changed slightly over the years, we still discuss Aristotle's list when talking about what makes the best drama… Aspects of drama that help you to enjoy and interpret a play: ** setting ** structure ** characterization ** theme ** dramatic irony * setting - The scenic design and props. The Ancient Greeks took their entertainment very seriously and used drama as a way of investigating the world they lived in, and what it meant to be human. The playwright determines how many acts and scenes the play will have. 4. All Rights Reserved. * tragic hero/heroine- the protagonist, or main character, in the play. Ancient Greek drama was a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from 600 BC. no murders or suicides were shown; instead, a messenger would inform the characters of the news). Greek drama has made a significant contribution to the art of the Dramatic Play. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. A traditional play follows the structural pattern of a traditional short story or novel. Example: *: Again, the character Malvolio in Shakespeare's play, Twelth Night is a satirical character. Poor judgment is a tragic flaw, or error, called hamatria. Example: *# Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream *# the movie, Pretty Woman * manners - portrays upper-class society involved in witty repartee that focuses on their relationships and "affairs." endstream Example: ***: In Oedipus Rex,Oedipus places a curse on the murderer of Laios, not realizing that he was actually that murderer. Also, because Greek theatre had no curtain, the interludes indicate a change of scene. By the 16th century, most plays had five acts with as many scenes as needed. What are the release dates for The Wonder Pets - 2006 Save the Ladybug? Nemesis – a punishment that the protagonist cannot avoid, usually occurring as a result of his hubris. A hero/heroine's misfortune is an example of human fallibility (human's tendency to fail). Peripeteia – The reversal of fate that the hero experiences. Shakespeare reveals Malvolio's faults, and shows him to be pathetic. Characters can possess both types of traits. 1 0 obj If you have read a play and then see it, you may be surprised because the play may be different from what you had imagined. Greek theatre buildings had three main elements: the orchestra, the skene, and the theatron. The term dramatic literature implies a contradiction in that literature originally meant something written and drama meant something performed.Most of the problems, and much of the interest, in the study of dramatic literature stem from this contradiction. %���� Competitive -- prizes awarded Actors and playwrights competed --Oedipus apparently didn't win 3. the playwright's message for the audience). They are classified by some authors as tragicomic, or comedy dramas.
The Three Types of Greek Drama
A Satyr and Dionysus
A Satyr and a Nymph
5. Choral -- singing seems to Ordinary people exemplify basic issues of social and personal conflict. He was the first to write about the essential elements of drama more than 2,000 years ago. <> Example: ***# In Shakespeare's play, Othello, Othello is the protagonist and Iago is the antagonist (Desdemona can also be considered to be a protagonist). Of various forms of drama, plays are the most popular. 6 0 obj The purpose of a Greek drama/theater was: “to pursue lofty moral themes, expand the intellect, and explore ethical issues.” * Comedy - a play that shows the humorous actions of characters when they try to solve social, personal, or religious problems. ***# In Cinderella,the friendly mice serve as Cinderella's confidants. How many candles are on a Hanukkah menorah? ---- ** structure - The way a play is organized into sections. (Ex: comic, victim, simpleton/fool, braggart, pretender). endobj One key element for writing is CONFLICT. Some other formats are dance performances, radio shows, puppet shows, etc. External characteristics (characteristics that flat, one-dimensional characters possess): *** names *** physical appearance *** physical nature *** manner of speech and accent *** manner of dress *** social status *** class *** education *** friends *** family *** community interests Internal characteristics (characters that round, multi-dimensional characters possess): *** thoughts *** feelings *** emotions Types of Characters: *** protagonist - the main character of a play, the one who is the center of action and holds your attention. *** parados (entry of chorus) - the parados is the song chanted by the chorus on their entry. How long will the footprints on the moon last? distinct characteristics of theatre. Which of the following depicts the lives of saints? Most plays are divided into acts and scenes. Most of his plays were part of trilogies; the only extant Greek trilogy is The Orestia.. 5 0 obj Some of the first forms of documented drama come from ancient Greece. *** antagonist (or villain) - the character who causes problems for the protagonist. The history of drama goes back to Aristotle and his treatise ‘Poetics’ which gives a critical analysis of Sophocles’ Greek play, ‘Oedipus Rex’. For the strophe, they are on one side of the stage, and for the antistrophe, they move to the other. Tragedies were often about the past, whereas comedies tended to be about current and everyday life. Typical Structure of a Greek Play It is worth keeping in mind that ancient Greek drama is less like modern plays and more like opera (which was intended, in fact, as a revival of Greek drama). Ancient Greek drama did not use acts and scenes but had a system of divisions which were: *** prologue (exposition) - the introductory speech given to the audience at the beginning of the play. Plays aim to sho… a speech is simply a thoughtful, friendly conversation between two people. What are some samples of opening remarks for a Christmas party? The subjects of tragic drama, Aristotle said, were rightly drawn from ancient mythology, because coming from that source they must be true. *** exodus - the final scene and resolution. ** involved acting out of bawdy personal and social relationships. Example: *# True West*# The movies, Fargo, and Pulp Fiction ANALYZING DRAMA How you react to a play will depend on: ** your individual perspective of the world ** your sense of humor ** you political attitudes ** your moral values Analysis begins by asking what factors about the play shaped your response. Exposition Dramatic plays are beholden to a set of characteristics that outline the arc of the play. Some components of the setting are as follows: ** *** the orchestra, the performance and dancing area for actors and chorus, which was utilized by Greek theater to inform audiences of what happens "off stage." The city-state of Athens, which became a significant cultural, political, and military power during this period, was its centre, where the theatre was institutionalised as part of a festival called the Dionysia, which honoured the god Dionysus. ---- ** characterization - the way the actor portrays the character's qualities and faults. Drama Characteristics Characters: Characters play an important role in the drams whether it is a major or minor one. Only in Sophocles, the perfect writer, were united ideal beauty, clearness of construction and religious inspiration--the three qualities which alone make tragedy great. Aristotle (384-322 BC) was a Greek philosopher whose writings still influence us today. As a reader, you can only imagine what the gestures, expressions and voices of the characters are like. The Oresteia is the only complete Greek tragic trilogy extant today. Lighting is more complicated today than it was in ancient times, because plays used to be shown only outside. Sophocles (c. … Example: *# In Shakespeare uses farcical humor in his play, Twelfth Night.Malvolio, a very prude, self-important character, is convinced to wear funny clothing and act like a fool (Meyer 900). Hence music and dance were an essential part of Greek drama (although, unfortunately, only the words have survived). Greek tragedy is a form of theatre from Ancient Greece and Anatolia.It reached its most significant form in Athens in the 5th century BC, the works of which are sometimes called Attic tragedy.Greek tragedy is widely believed to be an extension of the ancient rites carried out in honor of Dionysus, and it heavily influenced the theatre of Ancient Rome and the Renaissance. Most of his plays were written for the annual Athenian drama competition, the City Dionysia, which Aeschylus won thirteen times. Drama is the act of portraying a story in front of an audience. 2. x�u��J�@F���2)tr�t~,�.�DQVpQ\Ita*ƾ?Nj�)����9ȶX��*�-@�56E�)����&� ��F���R08��J���Τx�e��w6A��a���������m�r�V�S7R��� 5I��t���� �'�;)ʨ�'�q���T�K���h�K��9]�uWO�����j�/��6���2�W����k>�'dUs�=�w�Z~XWv ** catharsis/purgation - the audience cleanses their emotions. endobj Describe the essential characteristics of Greek tragedy; include a discussion of tragic hero There are three genres of Greek theatre: Tragedy, Comedy and Satyr. Here we have basic characteristics of a tragic hero, as explained by Aristotle: 1. 4 0 obj Drama in other forms of literature, such as novels or screenplays, owe much of their debt to this form of production and the ancient Greek tradition that created the dramatic structure. 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